User Commands                                              cat(1)


NAME

     cat - concatenate and display files


SYNOPSIS

  /usr/bin/cat
     /usr/bin/cat [-nbsuvet] [file...]

  ksh93
     cat [-bdenstuvABDEST] [file...]


DESCRIPTION

  /usr/bin/cat
     The cat utility reads each file in sequence and writes it on
     the standard output. Thus:

       example% cat file

     prints file on your terminal, and:

       example% cat file1 file2 >file3

     concatenates file1 and file2,  and  writes  the  results  in
     file3.   If no input file is given, cat reads from the stan-
     dard input file.

  ksh93
     The cat built-in in ksh93 is associated with  the  /bin  and
     /usr/bin paths. It is invoked when cat is executed without a
     pathname prefix and the pathname search finds a /bin/cat  or
     /usr/bin/cat  executable.   cat copies each file in sequence
     to the standard output. If no file is specified, or  if  the
     file  is  -,  cat copies from standard input starting at the
     current location.


OPTIONS

  /usr/bin/cat
     The following options are supported by /usr/bin/cat:

     -b    Number the lines, as -n, but  omit  the  line  numbers
           from blank lines.

     -n    Precede each line output with its line number.

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User Commands                                              cat(1)

     -s    cat is silent about non-existent files.

     -u    The output is not buffered.

           Buffered output is the default.

     -v    Non-printing characters, with the exception  of  tabs,
           NEWLINEs  and  form  feeds, are printed visibly. ASCII
           control characters (octal 000 - 037)  are  printed  as
           ^n,  where  n  is the corresponding ASCII character in
           the range octal 100 - 137 (@, A, B, C, . . ., X, Y, Z,
           [,  \, ], ^, and _); the DEL character (octal 0177) is
           printed  ^?.   Other  non-printable   characters   are
           printed  as M-x, where x is the ASCII character speci-
           fied by the low-order seven bits.

     When used with the -v option, the following options  can  be
     used:

     -e    A $ character is printed at  the  end  of  each  line,
           prior to the NEWLINE.

     -t    Tabs are printed as ^Is and form feeds to  be  printed
           as ^Ls.

     The -e and -t options are ignored if the -v  option  is  not
     specified.

  ksh93
     ksh93 cat supports the following options:

     -b --number-nonblank     Number lines as with  -n  but  omit
                              line numbers from blank lines.

     -d --dos-input           Open  input  files  in  text  mode.
                              Removes  RETURNs  in  front of NEW-
                              LINEs on some systems.

     -e                       Equivalent to -vE.

     -n --number              Insert a line number at the  begin-
                              ning of each line.

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User Commands                                              cat(1)

     -s                       Equivalent to -S for  att  universe
                              and -B otherwise.

     -t                       Equivalent to -vT.

     -u --unbuffer            Do not delay the output by  buffer-
                              ing.

     -v --show-nonprinting    Cause non-printing characters (with
                              the  exception  of  TABs, NEWLINEs,
                              and form feeds)  to  be  output  as
                              printable    character   sequences.
                              ASCII   control   characters    are
                              printed  as  ^n,  where  n  is  the
                              corresponding  ASCII  character  in
                              the  range  octal 100-137.  The DEL
                              character (octal 0177) is copied as
                              ^?.  Other non-printable characters
                              are copied as M-x where  x  is  the
                              ASCII  character  specified  by the
                              low-order  seven  bits.  Multi-byte
                              characters  in  the  current locale
                              are treated  as  printable  charac-
                              ters.

     -A --show-all            Equivalent to -vET.

     -B --squeeze-blank       Replace multiple  adjacent  NEWLINE
                              characters with one NEWLINE.

     -D --dos-output          Open output  files  in  text  mode.
                              Insert RETURNs in front of NEWLINEs
                              on some systems.

     -E --show-ends           Insert a $ before each NEWLINE.

     -S --silent              cat is  silent  about  non-existent
                              files.

     -T --show-blank          Copies TABs as ^I and form feeds as
                              ^L.

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User Commands                                              cat(1)


OPERANDS

     The following operand is supported:

     file    A path name of an input file. If no file  is  speci-
             fied,  the standard input is used. If file is -, cat
             reads from the standard input at that point  in  the
             sequence.   cat  does  not close and reopen standard
             input when it is referenced in this way, but accepts
             multiple occurrences of - as file.


USAGE

     See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of  cat
     when  encountering  files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte (
     2^31 bytes).


EXAMPLES

     Example 1 Concatenating a File

     The following command writes the contents of the file myfile
     to standard output:

       example% cat myfile

     Example 2 Concatenating Two files into One

     The following command concatenates the files doc1  and  doc2
     and writes the result to doc.all.

       example% cat doc1 doc2 > doc.all

     Example 3 Concatenating Two Arbitrary Pieces of Input with a
     Single Invocation

     When standard input is a  terminal,  the  following  command
     gets  two arbitrary pieces of input from the terminal with a
     single invocation of cat:

       example% cat start - middle - end > file

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User Commands                                              cat(1)

     when standard input is a terminal, gets two arbitrary pieces
     of input from the terminal with a single invocation of cat.

     If standard input is a regular file,

       example% cat start - middle - end > file

     would be equivalent to the following command:

       cat start - middle /dev/null end > file

     because the entire contents of the file would be consumed by
     cat  the first time - was used as a file operand and an end-
     of-file condition would be detected  immediately  when  -was
     referenced the second time.


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect the execution of cat:  LANG, LC_ALL,
     LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.


EXIT STATUS

     The following exit values are returned:

     0     All input files were output successfully.

     >0    An error occurred.


ATTRIBUTES

     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:

  /usr/bin/cat

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User Commands                                              cat(1)

     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | CSI                         | Enabled                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Interface Stability         | Committed                   |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Standard                    | See standards(5).           |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|

  ksh93
     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Interface Stability         | See below.                  |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|

     The ksh93 built-in binding to /bin and /usr/bin is Volatile.
     The built-in interfaces are Uncommitted.


SEE ALSO

     touch(1),  attributes(5),  environ(5),  largefile(5),  stan-
     dards(5)


NOTES

     Redirecting the output of cat onto one of  the  files  being
     read  causes  the  loss  of  the data originally in the file
     being read. For example,

       example% cat filename1 filename2 > filename1

     causes the original data in filename1 to be lost.

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