User Commands                                             echo(1)


     echo - echo arguments


     /usr/bin/echo [string]...


     The echo utility writes its arguments, separated  by  BLANKs
     and  terminated  by  a  NEWLINE,  to the standard output. If
     there are no arguments, only the NEWLINE character is  writ-

     echo is useful for producing diagnostics in  command  files,
     for  sending  known data into a pipe, and for displaying the
     contents of environment variables.

     The C shell, the Korn shell, and the Bourne shell  all  have
     echo built-in commands, which, by default, is invoked if the
     user   calls   echo   without   a   full    pathname.    See
     shell_builtins(1).  sh's echo, ksh's echo, ksh93's echo, and
     /usr/bin/echo understand the back-slashed escape characters,
     except  that  sh's  echo does not understand \a as the alert
     character. In addition, ksh's and ksh93's echo does not have
     an -n option.  sh's echo and /usr/bin/echo have an -n option
     if the SYSV3 environment variable is  set  (see  ENVIRONMENT
     VARIABLES  below).   csh's  echo  and  /usr/ucb/echo, on the
     other hand, have an -n option, but  do  not  understand  the
     back-slashed   escape  characters.   sh  and  ksh  determine
     whether /usr/ucb/echo is found first in the PATH and, if so,
     they  adapt  the  behavior  of  the  echo  builtin  to match


     The following operand is supported:

     string    A string to be written to standard output. If  any
               operand is "-n", it is treated as a string, not an
               option.  The  following  character  sequences   is
               recognized within any of the arguments:

               \a      Alert character.

               \b      Backspace.

               \c      Print line without new-line.  All  charac-
                       ters  following the \c in the argument are

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User Commands                                             echo(1)

               \f      Form-feed.

               \n      New-line.

               \r      Carriage return.

               \t      Tab.

               \v      Vertical tab.

               \\      Backslash.

               \0n     Where n is the 8-bit character whose ASCII
                       code is the 1-, 2- or 3-digit octal number
                       representing that character.


     Portable applications should not use -n (as the first  argu-
     ment) or escape sequences.

     The printf(1) utility can be used portably to emulate any of
     the traditional behaviors of the echo utility as follows:

         o    The Solaris 2.6 operating environment or compatible
              version's /usr/bin/echo is equivalent to:

                printf "%b\n" "$*"

         o    The /usr/ucb/echo is equivalent to:

                if [ "X$1" = "X-n" ]



                        printf "%s" "$*"


                        printf "%s\n" "$*"

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User Commands                                             echo(1)


     New applications are encouraged to  use  printf  instead  of


     Example 1 Finding how far below root your current  directory
     is located

     You can use echo to determine how many subdirectories  below
     the  root  directory  (/) is your current directory, as fol-

         o    Echo your  current-working-directory's  full  path-

         o    Pipe the output through tr to translate the  path's
              embedded slash-characters into space-characters.

         o    Pipe that output through wc -w for a count  of  the
              names in your path.

                example% /usr/bin/echo $PWD | tr '/' ' ' | wc -w

     See tr(1) and wc(1) for their functionality.

     Below are the different flavors for echoing a string without
     a NEWLINE:

     Example 2 /usr/bin/echo

       example% /usr/bin/echo "$USER's current directory is $PWD\c"

     Example 3 sh/ksh shells

       example$ echo "$USER's current directory is $PWD\c"

     Example 4 csh shell

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User Commands                                             echo(1)

       example% echo -n "$USER's current directory is $PWD"

     Example 5 /usr/ucb/echo

       example% /usr/ucb/echo -n "$USER's current directory is $PWD"


     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that affect the execution of echo:  LANG, LC_ALL,

     SYSV3    This environment variable is used to provide compa-
              tibility  with INTERACTIVE UNIX System and SCO UNIX
              installation scripts. It is intended  for  compati-
              bility  only and should not be used in new scripts.
              This variable is applicable only  for  Solaris  x86
              platforms, not Solaris SPARC systems.


     The following error values are returned:

     0     Successful completion.

     >0    An error occurred.


     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

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User Commands                                             echo(1)

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |
    | CSI                         | Enabled                     |
    | Interface Stability         | Committed                   |
    | Standard                    | See standards(5).           |


     ksh93(1),  printf(1),   shell_builtins(1),   tr(1),   wc(1),
     echo(1B), ascii(5), attributes(5), environ(5), standards(5)


     When representing an 8-bit character  by  using  the  escape
     convention  \0n,  the n must always be preceded by the digit
     zero (0).

     For example, typing: echo 'WARNING:\07'  prints  the  phrase
     WARNING:  and sounds the "bell" on your terminal. The use of
     single (or double) quotes (or two backslashes)  is  required
     to protect the "\" that precedes the "07".

     Following the \0, up to three digits are used in  construct-
     ing  the  octal output character. If, following the \0n, you
     want to echo additional digits that  are  not  part  of  the
     octal  representation,  you must use the full 3-digit n. For
     example, if you want to echo "ESC 7" you must use the  three
     digits  "033" rather than just the two digits "33" after the

       2 digits         Incorrect:      echo "\0337" | od -xc
                        produces:       df0a                     (hex)
                                        337                      (ascii)
       3 digits         Correct:        echo "\00337" | od -xc
                        produces:       lb37 0a00                (hex)
                                        033 7                    (ascii)

     For the octal equivalents of each character, see ascii(5).

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