User Commands                                               ps(1)


NAME

     ps - report process status


SYNOPSIS

     ps [-aAcdefjHlLPyZ] [-g grplist] [-h lgrplist]
          [-n namelist] [-o format]... [-p proclist]
          [-s sidlist] [-t term] [-u uidlist] [-U uidlist]
          [-G gidlist] [-z zonelist]


DESCRIPTION

     The ps command prints information  about  active  processes.
     Without  options, ps prints information about processes that
     have the same effective user ID  and  the  same  controlling
     terminal  as the invoker.  The output contains only the pro-
     cess ID, terminal identifier, cumulative execution time, and
     the   command  name.  Otherwise,  the  information  that  is
     displayed is controlled by the options.

     Some options accept lists as arguments. Items in a list  can
     be either separated by commas or else enclosed in quotes and
     separated by commas  or  spaces.  Values  for  proclist  and
     grplist must be numeric.


OPTIONS

     The following options are supported:

     -a             Lists information about  all  processes  most
                    frequently  requested:  all those except ses-
                    sion leaders  and  processes  not  associated
                    with a terminal.

     -A             Lists information for all processes.  Identi-
                    cal to -e, below.

     -c             Prints information in a format that  reflects
                    scheduler    properties   as   described   in
                    priocntl(1).  The -c option affects the  out-
                    put  of  the  -f and -l options, as described
                    below.

     -d             Lists information about all processes  except
                    session leaders.

     -e             Lists information  about  every  process  now
                    running.

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User Commands                                               ps(1)

                    When the -eoption is specified,  options  -z,
                    -t, -u, -U, -g, -G, -p, -g, -s and -a options
                    have no effect.

     -f             Generates a full listing. (See below for sig-
                    nificance of columns in a full listing.)

     -g grplist     Lists only process data whose group  leader's
                    ID  number(s)  appears  in grplist.  (A group
                    leader is a process whose process  ID  number
                    is identical to its process group ID number.)

     -G gidlist     Lists information for  processes  whose  real
                    group  ID  numbers are given in gidlist.  The
                    gidlist must be a single argument in the form
                    of a blank- or comma-separated list.

     -h lgrplist    Lists only the processes homed to the  speci-
                    fied  lgrplist.   Nothing  is  listed for any
                    invalid group specified in lgrplist.

     -H             Prints the home lgroup of the  process  under
                    an additional column header, LGRP.

     -j             Prints session ID and process group ID.

     -l             Generates a long listing. (See below.)

     -L             Prints information about  each  light  weight
                    process  (lwp) in each selected process. (See
                    below.)

     -n namelist    Specifies the name of an  alternative  system
                    namelist  file  in place of the default. This
                    option is accepted for compatibility, but  is
                    ignored.

     -o format      Prints information according  to  the  format
                    specification given in format.  This is fully
                    described in DISPLAY  FORMATS.   Multiple  -o
                    options can be specified; the format specifi-
                    cation   is   interpreted   as   the   space-

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User Commands                                               ps(1)

                    character-separated  concatenation of all the
                    format option-arguments.

     -p proclist    Lists only  process  data  whose  process  ID
                    numbers are given in proclist.

     -P             Prints the number of the processor  to  which
                    the process or lwp is bound, if any, under an
                    additional column header, PSR.

     -s sidlist     Lists  information  on  all  session  leaders
                    whose IDs appear in sidlist.

     -t term        Lists only process data associated with term.
                    Terminal  identifiers are specified as a dev-
                    ice file name, and an identifier.  For  exam-
                    ple, term/a, or pts/0.

     -u uidlist     Lists only process data whose effective  user
                    ID  number or login name is given in uidlist.
                    In the listing,  the  numerical  user  ID  is
                    printed  unless you give the -f option, which
                    prints the login name.

     -U uidlist     Lists information for  processes  whose  real
                    user  ID  numbers or login names are given in
                    uidlist.  The uidlist must be a single  argu-
                    ment  in  the  form  of  a  blank-  or comma-
                    separated list.

     -y             Under a long listing (-l), omits the obsolete
                    F and ADDR columns and includes an RSS column
                    to report the resident set size of  the  pro-
                    cess.  Under  the  -y option, both RSS and SZ
                    (see below) is reported in units of kilobytes
                    instead of pages.

     -z zonelist    Lists only processes in the specified  zones.
                    Zones  can be specified either by name or ID.
                    This option is only useful when  executed  in
                    the global zone.

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User Commands                                               ps(1)

     -Z             Prints the name of the zone  with  which  the
                    process  is  associated  under  an additional
                    column header, ZONE.  The ZONE  column  width
                    is  limited to 8 characters. Use ps -eZ for a
                    quick way to see information about every pro-
                    cess  now  running  along with the associated
                    zone name. Use

                      ps -eo zone,uid,pid,ppid,time,comm,...

                    to see zone names wider than 8 characters.

     Many of the options shown are used to  select  processes  to
     list.  If any are specified, the default list is ignored and
     ps selects the processes represented by the inclusive OR  of
     all the selection-criteria options.


DISPLAY FORMATS

     Under the -f option, ps tries to determine the command  name
     and  arguments given when the process was created by examin-
     ing the user block.   Failing  this,  the  command  name  is
     printed, as it would have appeared without the -f option, in
     square brackets.

     The column headings and the meaning of the columns in  a  ps
     listing  are  given  below; the letters f and l indicate the
     option  (full  or  long,  respectively)  that   causes   the
     corresponding  heading to appear; all means that the heading
     always appears.  Note: These two options determine only what
     information is provided for a process; they do not determine
     which processes are listed.

     F(l)          Flags (hexadecimal  and  additive)  associated
                   with  the  process.  These flags are available
                   for historical purposes; no meaning should  be
                   currently ascribed to them.

     S (l)         The state of the process:

                   O    Process is running on a processor.

                   S    Sleeping: process is waiting for an event
                        to complete.

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                   R    Runnable: process is on run queue.

                   T    Process is stopped, either by a job  con-
                        trol   signal  or  because  it  is  being
                        traced.

                   W    Waiting: process is waiting for CPU usage
                        to drop to the CPU-caps enforced limits.

                   Z    Zombie  state:  process  terminated   and
                        parent not waiting.

     UID (f,l)     The effective user ID number  of  the  process
                   (the  login  name  is  printed  under  the  -f
                   option).

     PID(all)      The process ID of the process (this  datum  is
                   necessary in order to kill a process).

     PPID(f,l)     The process ID of the parent process.

     C(f,l)        Processor    utilization    for     scheduling
                   (obsolete).  Not printed when the -c option is
                   used.

     CLS(f,l)      Scheduling class. Printed  only  when  the  -c
                   option is used.

     PRI(l)        The priority of the process.  Without  the  -c
                   option,  higher  numbers  mean lower priority.
                   With the -c option, higher numbers mean higher
                   priority.

     NI(l)         Nice value, used in priority computation.  Not
                   printed  when  the  -c  option  is  used. Only
                   processes in the  certain  scheduling  classes
                   have a nice value.

     ADDR(l)       The memory address of the process.

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User Commands                                               ps(1)

     SZ(l)         The total  size  of  the  process  in  virtual
                   memory,  including  all  mapped files and dev-
                   ices, in pages. See pagesize(1).

     WCHAN(l)      The address of an event for which the  process
                   is  sleeping  (if  blank,  the process is run-
                   ning).

     STIME(f)      The starting time of  the  process,  given  in
                   hours,  minutes, and seconds. (A process begun
                   more than  twenty-four  hours  before  the  ps
                   inquiry  is  executed  is  given in months and
                   days.)

     TTY(all)      The controlling terminal for the process  (the
                   message,  ?,  is printed when there is no con-
                   trolling terminal).

     TIME(all)     The cumulative execution time for the process.

     LTIME(all)    The execution time for the lwp being reported.

     CMD(all)      The command name (the full  command  name  and
                   its arguments, up to a limit of 80 characters,
                   are printed under the -f option).

     The following two additional columns are printed when the -j
     option is specified:

     PGID    The process ID of the process group leader.

     SID     The process ID of the session leader.

     The following two additional columns are printed when the -L
     option is specified:

     LWP     The lwp ID of the lwp being reported.

     NLWP    The number of lwps in the process  (if  -f  is  also
             specified).

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User Commands                                               ps(1)

     Under the -L option, one line is printed for each lwp in the
     process  and  the time-reporting fields STIME and LTIME show
     the values for the  lwp,  not  the  process.  A  traditional
     single-threaded process contains only one lwp.

     A process that has exited and has a parent, but has not  yet
     been waited for by the parent, is marked <defunct>.

  -o format
     The -o option allows the output format to be specified under
     user control.

     The format specification must be a list of  names  presented
     as  a single argument, blank- or comma-separated. Each vari-
     able has a default header. The default header can  be  over-
     ridden  by  appending an equals sign and the new text of the
     header. The rest of the characters in the argument  is  used
     as  the header text. The fields specified are written in the
     order specified on the command line, and should be  arranged
     in  columns  in the output. The field widths are selected by
     the system to be  at  least  as  wide  as  the  header  text
     (default  or  overridden value). If the header text is null,
     such as -o user=, the field width is at least as wide as the
     default header text.  If all header text fields are null, no
     header line is written.

     The following names are recognized in the POSIX locale:

     user      The effective user ID of the process. This is  the
               textual  user  ID,  if  it can be obtained and the
               field width permits, or a  decimal  representation
               otherwise.

     ruser     The real user ID of the process. This is the  tex-
               tual  user ID, if it can be obtained and the field
               width permits, or a decimal representation  other-
               wise.

     group     The effective group ID of the process. This is the
               textual  group  ID,  if it can be obtained and the
               field width permits, or a  decimal  representation
               otherwise.

     rgroup    The real group ID of the process. This is the tex-
               tual group ID, if it can be obtained and the field
               width  permits,  or   a   decimal   representation

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User Commands                                               ps(1)

               otherwise.

     pid       The decimal value of the process ID.

     ppid      The decimal value of the parent process ID.

     pgid      The decimal value of the process group ID.

     pcpu      The ratio of CPU time used recently  to  CPU  time
               available  in the same period, expressed as a per-
               centage. The meaning of ``recently'' in this  con-
               text  is  unspecified.  The  CPU time available is
               determined in an unspecified manner.

     vsz       The total size of the process in  virtual  memory,
               in kilobytes.

     nice      The decimal value of the system scheduling  prior-
               ity of the process. See nice(1).

     etime     In the POSIX locale, the elapsed  time  since  the
               process was started, in the form:

               [[dd-]hh:]mm:ss

               where

               dd    is the number of days

               hh    is the number of hours

               mm    is the number of minutes

               ss    is the number of seconds

               The dd field is a decimal integer. The hh, mm  and
               ss  fields is two-digit decimal integers padded on
               the left with zeros.

     time      In the POSIX locale, the cumulative  CPU  time  of
               the process in the form:

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User Commands                                               ps(1)

               [dd-]hh:mm:ss

               The dd, hh, mm, and ss fields is as  described  in
               the etime specifier.

     tty       The name of the controlling terminal of  the  pro-
               cess  (if  any)  in  the  same  format used by the
               who(1) command.

     comm      The name of the command  being  executed  (argv[0]
               value) as a string.

     args      The command with all its arguments  as  a  string.
               The  implementation  might  truncate this value to
               the field width;  it  is  implementation-dependent
               whether  any  further  truncation  occurs.  It  is
               unspecified whether the string  represented  is  a
               version  of  the argument list as it was passed to
               the command when it started, or is  a  version  of
               the  arguments as they might have been modified by
               the application.  Applications  cannot  depend  on
               being  able to modify their argument list and hav-
               ing that modification be reflected in  the  output
               of  ps.   The  Solaris  implementation  limits the
               string to 80 bytes; the string is the  version  of
               the  argument list as it was passed to the command
               when it started.

     The following names are recognized in the Solaris  implemen-
     tation:

     f          Flags (hexadecimal and additive) associated  with
                the process.

     s          The state of the process.

     c          Processor utilization for scheduling (obsolete).

     uid        The effective user ID number of the process as  a
                decimal integer.

     ruid       The real user ID  number  of  the  process  as  a
                decimal integer.

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User Commands                                               ps(1)

     gid        The effective group ID number of the process as a
                decimal integer.

     rgid       The real group ID number  of  the  process  as  a
                decimal integer.

     projid     The project ID number of the process as a decimal
                integer.

     project    The project ID of the process as a textual  value
                if  that  value  can be obtained; otherwise, as a
                decimal integer.

     zoneid     The zone ID number of the process  as  a  decimal
                integer.

     zone       The zone ID of the process as a textual value  if
                that  value  can  be  obtained;  otherwise,  as a
                decimal integer.

     sid        The process ID of the session leader.

     taskid     The task ID of the process.

     class      The scheduling class of the process.

     pri        The priority of the process. Higher numbers  mean
                higher priority.

     opri       The  obsolete  priority  of  the  process.  Lower
                numbers mean higher priority.

     lwp        The decimal value of the lwp ID.  Requesting this
                formatting  option  causes one line to be printed
                for each lwp in the process.

     nlwp       The number of lwps in the process.

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User Commands                                               ps(1)

     psr        The number of the processor to which the  process
                or lwp is bound.

     pset       The ID of the processor set to which the  process
                or lwp is bound.

     addr       The memory address of the process.

     osz        The total size of the process in virtual  memory,
                in pages.

     wchan      The address of an event for which the process  is
                sleeping (if -, the process is running).

     stime      The starting time or date of the process, printed
                with no blanks.

     rss        The resident set size of the  process,  in  kilo-
                bytes.  The  rss value reported by ps is an esti-
                mate provided by proc(4) that might underestimate
                the  actual  resident set size. Users who wish to
                get more accurate usage information for  capacity
                planning should use pmap(1) -x instead.

     pmem       The ratio of the process's resident set  size  to
                the  physical memory on the machine, expressed as
                a percentage.

     fname      The first  8  bytes  of  the  base  name  of  the
                process's executable file.

     ctid       The contract ID of the process contract the  pro-
                cess is a member of as a decimal integer.

     lgrp       The home lgroup of the process.

     Only comm and args are allowed to contain blank  characters;
     all  others, including the Solaris implementation variables,
     are not.

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User Commands                                               ps(1)

     The following table specifies the default header to be  used
     in the POSIX locale corresponding to each format specifier.

     __________________________________________________________________
    |     Format          Default          Format          Default    |
    |   Specifier          Header         Specifier         Header    |
    |_________________________________________________________________|
    |      args           COMMAND           ppid             PPID     |
    |      comm           COMMAND          rgroup           RGROUP    |
    |     etime           ELAPSED           ruser           RUSER     |
    |     group            GROUP            time             TIME     |
    |      nice              NI              tty              TT      |
    |      pcpu             %CPU            user             USER     |
    |      pgid             PGID             vsz             VSZ      |
    |      pid              PID                                       |
    |_________________________________________________________________|

     The following table lists the Solaris implementation  format
     specifiers and the default header used with each.

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User Commands                                               ps(1)

     __________________________________________________________________
    |     Format          Default          Format          Default    |
    |   Specifier          Header         Specifier         Header    |
    |_________________________________________________________________|
    |      addr             ADDR           projid           PROJID    |
    |       c                C             project         PROJECT    |
    |     class             CLS              psr             PSR      |
    |       f                F              rgid             RGID     |
    |     fname           COMMAND            rss             RSS      |
    |      gid              GID             ruid             RUID     |
    |      lgrp             LGRP              s               S       |
    |      lwp              LWP              sid             SID      |
    |      nlwp             NLWP            stime           STIME     |
    |      opri             PRI            taskid           TASKID    |
    |      osz               SZ              uid             UID      |
    |      pmem             %MEM            wchan           WCHAN     |
    |      pri              PRI             zone             ZONE     |
    |      ctid             CTID           zoneid           ZONEID    |
    |_________________________________________________________________|


EXAMPLES

     Example 1 Using ps Command

     The command:

       example% ps -o user,pid,ppid=MOM -o args

     writes the following in the POSIX locale:

        USER  PID   MOM   COMMAND
       helene  34    12   ps -o uid,pid,ppid=MOM -o args

     The contents of the COMMAND field need not be the  same  due
     to possible truncation.


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect  the execution of ps:  LANG, LC_ALL,
     LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, and NLSPATH.

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User Commands                                               ps(1)

     COLUMNS    Override the  system-selected  horizontal  screen
                size,  used  to  determine  the  number  of  text
                columns to display.


EXIT STATUS

     The following exit values are returned:

     0     Successful completion.

     >0    An error occurred.


FILES

     /dev/pts/*

     /dev/term/*    terminal (``tty'') names searcher files

     /etc/passwd    UID information supplier

     /proc/*        process control files


ATTRIBUTES

     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:

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User Commands                                               ps(1)

     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | CSI                         | Enabled (see USAGE)         |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Interface Stability         | Committed                   |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Standard                    | See standards(5).           |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


SEE ALSO

     kill(1),   lgrpinfo(1),   nice(1),   pagesize(1),   pmap(1),
     priocntl(1),  who(1), getty(1M), proc(4), ttysrch(4), attri-
     butes(5),  environ(5),  resource_controls(5),  standards(5),
     zones(5)


NOTES

     Things can change while ps is running. The snapshot it gives
     is  true  only for a split-second, and it might not be accu-
     rate by the time you see it. Some data printed  for  defunct
     processes is irrelevant.

     If no options to select processes are specified, ps  reports
     all  processes  associated with the controlling terminal. If
     there is no controlling terminal, there is no  report  other
     than the header.

     ps -ef or ps -o stime might not report the actual start of a
     tty  login session, but rather an earlier time, when a getty
     was last respawned on the tty line.

     ps is CSI-enabled except for login names (usernames).

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