User Commands                                   shell_builtins(1)


NAME

     shell_builtins, case, for, foreach,  function,  if,  repeat,
     select,  switch,  until,  while  - shell command interpreter
     built-in commands


DESCRIPTION

     The shell command interpreters csh(1), ksh(1), ksh93(1), and
     sh(1)  have  special  built-in  commands. The commands case,
     for, foreach, function, if, repeat, select,  switch,  until,
     and  while  are  commands  in  the  syntax recognized by the
     shells. They are described in the Commands  section  of  the
     manual  pages  of  the  respective  shells. In ksh93(1), fc,
     hash, stop, suspend, times, and type are aliases by default.
     In  ksh93,  the  following  built-ins  are bound to the /bin
     pathname by default and are invoked if the  pathname  search
     encounters an executable command of that name in the /bin or
     /usr/bin  directory:   cat,  chown,  getconf,  head,  mkdir,
     rmdir, tee, uniq, and wc.

     The remaining commands listed in  the  following  table  are
     built into the shells for reasons such as efficiency or data
     sharing between command invocations. They are  described  on
     their respective manual pages.

               Command                        Shell
     __________________________________________________________
     ++**alias                     csh, ksh, ksh93
     bg                            csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     +*break                       csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     builtin                       ksh93
     case                          csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     cat                           ksh93
     cd                            csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     chdir                         csh, sh
     chown                         ksh93
     command                       ksh93
     +*continue                    csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     dirs                          csh
     disown                        ksh93
     echo                          csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     +*eval                        csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     +*exec                        csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     +*exit                        csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     ++**export                    ksh, ksh93, sh
     false                         ksh, ksh93
     fc                            ksh, ksh93
     fg                            csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     for                           ksh, ksh93, sh
     foreach                       csh

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User Commands                                   shell_builtins(1)

     function                      ksh, ksh93
     getconf                       ksh93
     getopts                       ksh, ksh93, sh
     glob                          csh
     goto                          csh
     hash                          ksh, ksh93, sh
     hashstat                      csh
     head                          ksh93
     hist                          ksh93
     history                       csh
     if                            csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     jobs                          csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     kill                          csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     let                           ksh, ksh93,
     limit                         csh
     login                         csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     logout                        csh
     mkdir                         ksh93
     nice                          csh
     +*newgrp                      ksh, ksh93, sh
     nohup                         csh
     notify                        csh
     onintr                        csh
     popd                          csh
     print                         ksh, ksh93
     printf                        ksh93
     pushd                         csh
     pwd                           ksh, ksh93, sh
     read                          ksh, ksh93, sh
     ++**readonly                  ksh, ksh93, sh
     rehash                        csh
     repeat                        csh
     +*return                      ksh, ksh93, sh
     select                        ksh, ksh93
     +set                          csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     setenv                        csh
     shift                         csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     sleep                         ksh93
     source                        csh
     stop                          csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     suspend                       csh, ksh, sh
     switch                        csh
     tee                           ksh93
     test                          ksh, ksh93, sh
     time                          csh
     *times                        ksh, ksh93, sh
     *+trap                        ksh, ksh93, sh
     true                          ksh, ksh93
     type                          ksh, ksh93, sh
     ++**typeset                   ksh, ksh93
     ulimit                        ksh, ksh93, sh
     umask                         csh, ksh, ksh93, sh

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User Commands                                   shell_builtins(1)

     +unalias                      csh, ksh, ksh93
     unhash                        csh
     uniq                          ksh93
     unlimit                       csh
     +unset                        csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     unsetenv                      csh
     until                         ksh, ksh93, sh
     *wait                         csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
     whence                        ksh, ksh93
     while                         csh, ksh, ksh93, sh

  Bourne Shell, sh, Special Commands
     Input/output redirection is now  permitted  for  these  com-
     mands.  File  descriptor  1  is the default output location.
     When Job Control is enabled, additional Special Commands are
     added to the shell's environment.

     In addition to these built-in  reserved  command  words,  sh
     also uses:

     :              No effect; the command does nothing.  A  zero
                    exit code is returned.

     .filename      Read and execute commands from  filename  and
                    return.  The search path specified by PATH is
                    used  to  find   the   directory   containing
                    filename.

  C shell, csh
     Built-in commands are executed within  the  C  shell.  If  a
     built-in  command  occurs  as  any  component  of a pipeline
     except the last, it is executed in a subshell.  In  addition
     to these built-in reserved command words, csh also uses:

     :    Null command. This command is interpreted, but performs
          no action.

  Korn Shell, ksh, Special Commands
     Input/Output  redirection  is  permitted.  Unless  otherwise
     indicated,  the  output  is written on file descriptor 1 and
     the exit status, when there is no syntax error, is zero.

     Commands that are preceded by one or two *  (asterisks)  are
     treated specially in the following ways:

         1.   Variable assignment  lists  preceding  the  command

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User Commands                                   shell_builtins(1)

              remain in effect when the command completes.

         2.   I/O  redirections  are  processed  after   variable
              assignments.

         3.   Errors cause a script that contains them to abort.

         4.   Words, following a command preceded by ** that  are
              in   the  format  of  a  variable  assignment,  are
              expanded with the same rules as a variable  assign-
              ment.  This  means  that tilde substitution is per-
              formed after the = sign and word splitting and file
              name generation are not performed.

     In addition to these built-in reserved  command  words,  ksh
     also uses:

     * : [ arg ... ]              The command only expands param-
                                  eters.

     * .file [ arg ... ]          Read  the  complete  file  then
                                  execute  the commands. The com-
                                  mands  are  executed   in   the
                                  current  shell environment. The
                                  search path specified  by  PATH
                                  is  used  to find the directory
                                  containing file.  If any  argu-
                                  ments  arg  are specified, they
                                  become the  positional  parame-
                                  ters.    Otherwise,  the  posi-
                                  tional      parameters      are
                                  unchanged.  The  exit status is
                                  the exit  status  of  the  last
                                  command executed. the loop ter-
                                  mination test.

  Korn Shell, ksh93, Special Commands
     Input/Output  redirection  is  permitted.  Unless  otherwise
     indicated,  the  output  is written on file descriptor 1 and
     the exit status, when there is no syntax error, is zero.

     Except for :, true, false,  echo,  newgrp,  and  login,  all
     built-in commands accept -- to indicate end of options. They
     also interpret the option --man as a request to display  the
     manual  page  onto  standard  error and -? as a help request
     which prints a usage message on standard error.

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User Commands                                   shell_builtins(1)

     Commands that are preceded by one or two + are treated  spe-
     cially in the following ways:

         1.   Variable assignment  lists  preceding  the  command
              remain in effect when the command completes.

         2.   I/O  redirections  are  processed  after   variable
              assignments.

         3.   Errors cause a script that contains them to abort.

         4.   They are not valid function names.

         5.   Words, following a command preceded by ++ that  are
              in   the  format  of  a  variable  assignment,  are
              expanded with the same rules as a variable  assign-
              ment.  This  means  that tilde substitution is per-
              formed after the = sign  and  field  splitting  and
              file name generation are not performed.

     In addition to these built-in reserved command words,  ksh93
     also uses:

     : [ arg ... ]              The command only expands  parame-
                                ters.

     .name [ arg ... ]          If name  is  a  function  defined
                                with  the  function name reserved
                                word syntax, the function is exe-
                                cuted  in the current environment
                                (as if it had been  defined  with
                                the  name() syntax.) Otherwise if
                                name refers to a file,  the  file
                                is  read  in its entirety and the
                                commands  are  executed  in   the
                                current  shell  environment.  The
                                search path specified by PATH  is
                                used  to  find the directory con-
                                taining the file.  If  any  argu-
                                ments  arg  are  specified,  they
                                become the positional  parameters
                                while  processing  the  . command
                                and   the   original   positional
                                parameters are restored upon com-
                                pletion. Otherwise the positional
                                parameters   are  unchanged.  The
                                exit status is the exit status of
                                the last command executed.

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User Commands                                   shell_builtins(1)


SEE ALSO

     Intro(1), alias(1), break(1), builtin(1),  cd(1),  chmod(1),
     csh(1),   disown(1),  echo(1),  exec(1),  exit(1),  find(1),
     getoptcvt(1),  getopts(1),  glob(1),  hash(1),   history(1),
     jobs(1),   kill(1),   ksh(1),  ksh93(1),  let(1),  limit(1),
     login(1), logout(1), newgrp(1), nice(1), nohup(1), print(1),
     printf(1),  pwd(1),  read(1),  readonly(1),  set(1),  sh(1),
     shift(1), sleep(1),  suspend(1),  test(1)test(1),  test(1B),
     time(1),  times(1),  trap(1), typeset(1), umask(1), wait(1),
     chdir(2), chmod(2),  creat(2),  umask(2),  getopt(3C),  pro-
     file(4), environ(5)

SunOS 5.11          Last change: 20 Nov 2007                    6


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