Standards, Environments, and Macros                    environ(5)


NAME

     environ - user environment


DESCRIPTION

     When a process begins execution, one of the exec  family  of
     functions  makes  available  an  array of strings called the
     environment; see exec(2).  By convention, these strings have
     the  form variable=value, for example, PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin.
     These environmental variables provide a way to make informa-
     tion about a program's environment available to programs.

     A name may be placed in the environment by the  export  com-
     mand  and  name=value  arguments  in sh(1), or by one of the
     exec functions. It is unwise to conflict with certain  shell
     variables  such  as  MAIL,  PS1,  PS2, and IFS that are fre-
     quently exported by .profile files; see profile(4).

     The following environmental variables can be used by  appli-
     cations  and  are  expected to be set in the target run-time
     environment.

     HOME

         The name of the user's login directory, set by  login(1)
         from the password file; see passwd(4).

     LANG

         The string used to specify internationalization informa-
         tion  that  allows users to work with different national
         conventions. The setlocale(3C) function checks the  LANG
         environment  variable  when  it is called with "" as the
         locale argument.  LANG is used as the default locale  if
         the  corresponding environment variable for a particular
         category is unset or null. If, however, LC_ALL is set to
         a valid, non-empty value, its contents are used to over-
         ride both the LANG and the  other  LC_*  variables.  For
         example, when invoked as setlocale(LC_CTYPE, ""), setlo-
         cale() will  query  the  LC_CTYPE  environment  variable
         first  to  see if it is set and non-null. If LC_CTYPE is
         not set or null, then setlocale() will  check  the  LANG
         environment  variable  to see if it is set and non-null.
         If both LANG and LC_CTYPE are unset or NULL, the default
         "C" locale will be used to set the LC_CTYPE category.

         Most commands will invoke setlocale(LC_ALL, "") prior to
         any other processing. This allows the command to be used
         with  different  national  conventions  by  setting  the
         appropriate environment variables.

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Standards, Environments, and Macros                    environ(5)

         The following environment variables correspond  to  each
         category of setlocale(3C):

         LC_ALL

             If set to a valid, non-empty string value,  override
             the values of LANG and all the other LC_*variables.

         LC_COLLATE

             This  category  specifies  the  character  collation
             sequence  being used.  The information corresponding
             to this category is stored in a database created  by
             the  localedef(1)  command.   This environment vari-
             able affects strcoll(3C) and strxfrm(3C).

         LC_CTYPE

             This category  specifies  character  classification,
             character  conversion, and widths of multibyte char-
             acters. When LC_CTYPE is set to a valid  value,  the
             calling utility can display and handle text and file
             names containing valid characters for  that  locale;
             Extended  Unix Code (EUC) characters where any indi-
             vidual character can be 1, 2, or 3 bytes  wide;  and
             EUC  characters  of  1,  2,  or 3 column widths. The
             default "C" locale corresponds to  the  7-bit  ASCII
             character  set;  only characters from ISO 8859-1 are
             valid.  The  information   corresponding   to   this
             category  is  stored  in  a  database created by the
             localedef() command.  This environment  variable  is
             used  by  ctype(3C),  mblen(3C),  and many commands,
             such as cat(1), ed(1), ls(1), and vi(1).

         LC_MESSAGES

             This category specifies the language of the  message
             database being used. For example, an application may
             have one message database with French messages,  and
             another database with German messages. Message data-
             bases are created by  the  mkmsgs(1)  command.  This
             environment variable is used by exstr(1), gettxt(1),
             srchtxt(1), gettxt(3C), and gettext(3C).

         LC_MONETARY

             This category specifies  the  monetary  symbols  and
             delimiters   used  for  a  particular  locale.   The

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Standards, Environments, and Macros                    environ(5)

             information corresponding to this category is stored
             in  a  database created by the localedef(1) command.
             This environment variable is used by localeconv(3C).

         LC_NUMERIC

             This category specifies the  decimal  and  thousands
             delimiters.  The  information  corresponding to this
             category is stored in  a  database  created  by  the
             localedef()    command.   The   default   C   locale
             corresponds to "." as the decimal delimiter  and  no
             thousands  delimiter.  This  environment variable is
             used by localeconv(3C), printf(3C), and strtod(3C).

         LC_TIME

             This category specifies date and time  formats.  The
             information corresponding to this category is stored
             in a database specified in localedef().  The default
             C  locale corresponds to U.S. date and time formats.
             This environment variable is used by  many  commands
             and  functions;  for  example:   at(1), calendar(1),
             date(1), strftime(3C), and getdate(3C).

     MSGVERB

         Controls which standard format message components fmtmsg
         selects  when  messages  are  displayed  to  stderr; see
         fmtmsg(1) and fmtmsg(3C).

     NETPATH

         A colon-separated list of network identifiers. A network
         identifier  is  a  character  string used by the Network
         Selection   component   of   the   system   to   provide
         application-specific  default  network  search  paths. A
         network identifier must consist of  non-null  characters
         and  must have a length of at least 1. No maximum length
         is specified. Network identifiers are normally chosen by
         the  system  administrator. A network identifier is also
         the first field in any /etc/netconfig file entry.   NET-
         PATH  thus  provides a link into the /etc/netconfig file
         and the information about a network  contained  in  that
         network's  entry.   /etc/netconfig  is maintained by the
         system administrator. The library routines described  in
         getnetpath(3NSL)  access  the  NETPATH environment vari-
         able.

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Standards, Environments, and Macros                    environ(5)

     NLSPATH

         Contains a sequence of templates which  catopen(3C)  and
         gettext(3C)  use when attempting to locate message cata-
         logs. Each template consists of an optional prefix,  one
         or  more substitution fields, a filename and an optional
         suffix. For example:

           NLSPATH="/system/nlslib/%N.cat"

         defines that catopen() should look for all message cata-
         logs  in the directory /system/nlslib, where the catalog
         name should  be  constructed  from  the  name  parameter
         passed to catopen(), %N, with the suffix .cat.

         Substitution fields consist of a % symbol, followed by a
         single-letter   keyword.   The  following  keywords  are
         currently defined:

         %N

             The value of the name parameter passed to catopen().

         %L

             The value of LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

         %l

             The language element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

         %t

             The territory element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

         %c

             The codeset element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

         %%

             A single % character.

         An empty string is substituted if the specified value is
         not  currently  defined.  The separators "_" and "." are
         not included in %t and %c substitutions.

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         Templates defined in NLSPATH  are  separated  by  colons
         (:).   A  leading  colon or two adjacent colons (::)  is
         equivalent to specifying %N.  For example:

           NLSPATH=":%N.cat:/nlslib/%L/%N.cat"

         indicates to catopen()  that  it  should  look  for  the
         requested   message   catalog   in  name,  name.cat  and
         /nlslib/$LANG/name.cat. For gettext(), %N  automatically
         maps to "messages".

         If NLSPATH is unset or  NULL,  catopen()  and  gettext()
         call  setlocale(3C),  which  checks  LANG  and the  LC_*
         variables to locate the message catalogs.

         NLSPATH will normally be set up on a system  wide  basis
         (in /etc/profile) and thus makes the location and naming
         conventions associated with message catalogs transparent
         to both programs and users.

     PATH

         The sequence of directory prefixes that sh(1),  time(1),
         nice(1),  nohup(1), and other utilities apply in search-
         ing for a file known by an  incomplete  path  name.  The
         prefixes  are  separated  by  colons (:).  login(1) sets
         PATH=/usr/bin.  For more detail, see sh(1).

     SEV_LEVEL

         Define severity levels and associate and  print  strings
         with   them  in  standard  format  error  messages;  see
         addseverity(3C), fmtmsg(1), and fmtmsg(3C).

     TERM

         The kind of terminal for which output is to be prepared.
         This  information  is  used  by commands, such as vi(1),
         which may exploit special capabilities of that terminal.

     TZ

         Timezone information. The contents of  this  environment
         variable   are   used   by   the   functions  ctime(3C),
         localtime(3C), strftime(3C), and mktime(3C) to  override
         the default timezone. The value of TZ has one of the two
         formats (spaces inserted for clarity):

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Standards, Environments, and Macros                    environ(5)

           :characters

         or

           std offset dst offset, rule

         If TZ is of the first format  (that  is,  if  the  first
         character is a colon (:)), or if TZ is not of the second
         format, then TZ designates a path to a timezone database
         file  relative  to  /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/, ignoring a
         leading colon if one exists.

         Otherwise, TZ is of the second form, which when expanded
         is as follows:

           stdoffset[dst[offset][,start[/time],end[/time]]]

         std and dst

             Indicate  no  less  than  three,   nor   more   than
             {TZNAME_MAX}, bytes that are the designation for the
             standard (std) or the alternative (dst, such as Day-
             light  Savings Time) timezone. Only std is required;
             if dst is missing, then the  alternative  time  does
             not apply in this timezone. Each of these fields can
             occur in either of two formats, quoted or unquoted:

                 o    In the quoted form, the first character  is
                      the  less-than ('<') character and the last
                      character is the greater-than ('>') charac-
                      ter.  All  characters between these quoting
                      characters are alphanumeric characters from
                      the  portable  character set in the current
                      locale, the plus-sign ('+')  character,  or
                      the minus-sign ('-') character. The std and
                      dst fields in this case do not include  the
                      quoting characters.

                 o    In the unquoted  form,  all  characters  in
                      these fields are alphabetic characters from
                      the portable character set in  the  current
                      locale.
             The interpretation of these fields is unspecified if
             either  field  is  less than three bytes (except for
             the  case  when   dst   is   missing),   more   than
             {TZNAME_MAX}  bytes,  or  if they contain characters
             other than those specified.

         offset

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Standards, Environments, and Macros                    environ(5)

             Indicate the value one must add to the local time to
             arrive at Coordinated Universal Time. The offset has
             the form:

               hh[:mm[:ss]]

             The minutes (mm) and seconds (ss) are optional.  The
             hour (hh) is required and can be a single digit. The
             offset following std is required. If no offset  fol-
             lows dst, daylight savings time is assumed to be one
             hour ahead of standard time. One or more digits  can
             be  used.  The  value  is  always  interpreted  as a
             decimal number. The hour must be between 0  and  24,
             and  the  minutes (and seconds), if present, must be
             between 0 and 59. Out  of  range  values  can  cause
             unpredictable  behavior.  If  preceded by a "-", the
             timezone is east of the Prime  Meridian.  Otherwise,
             it is west of the Prime Meridian (which can be indi-
             cated by an optional preceding "+" sign).

         start/time,end/time

             Indicate when to change to and  back  from  daylight
             savings  time,  where  start/time describes when the
             change from standard time to daylight  savings  time
             occurs,  and end/time describes when the change back
             occurs. Each time field describes when,  in  current
             local time, the change is made.

             The formats of start and end are one of the  follow-
             ing:

             Jn

                 The Julian day n (1 < n < 365).  Leap  days  are
                 not counted.  That is, in all years, February 28
                 is day 59 and March 1 is day 60. It is  impossi-
                 ble to refer to the occasional February 29.

             n

                 The zero-based Julian day (0 < n  <  365).  Leap
                 days are counted, and it is possible to refer to
                 February 29.

             Mm.n.d

                 The d^th day, (0 < d < 6) of week n of  month  m

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Standards, Environments, and Macros                    environ(5)

                 of  the year (1 < n < 5, 1 < m < 12), where week
                 5 means "the last d-day in month  m"  which  may
                 occur  in  either the fourth or the fifth week).
                 Week 1 is the first week in which the  d^th  day
                 occurs. Day zero is Sunday.

             Implementation specific defaults are used for  start
             and end if these optional fields are not specified.

             The time has the same format as offset  except  that
             no leading sign ("-" or "+" ) is allowed. If time is
             not specified, the default value is 02:00:00.


SEE ALSO

     cat(1), date(1), ed(1), fmtmsg(1),  localedef(1),  login(1),
     ls(1),   mkmsgs(1),   nice(1),   nohup(1),  sh(1),  sort(1),
     time(1),  vi(1),  exec(2),   addseverity(3C),   catopen(3C),
     ctime(3C),      ctype(3C),      fmtmsg(3C),     getdate(3C),
     getnetpath(3NSL), gettext(3C),  gettxt(3C),  localeconv(3C),
     mblen(3C),     mktime(3C),     printf(3C),    setlocale(3C),
     strcoll(3C),    strftime(3C),    strtod(3C),    strxfrm(3C),
     TIMEZONE(4), netconfig(4), passwd(4), profile(4)

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